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F - K

Tobacco specific terms only

The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control is a global treaty for tobacco control which entered into force on 27 February 2005. 168 countries were signatories to the Treaty and there were 174 Parties to the Treaty as of January 2012.  A Party to the Treaty is a government that has both signed and ratified the Treaty.

Filter analysis
A method for estimating the exposure of smokers to smoke constituents, most frequently tar or nicotine, by measuring the amount of smoke (or smoke constituents) retained by cigarette filters. It represents a maximum possible estimate for intake of smoke into the mouth of a smoker from that cigarette. It is a maximum estimate because of potential losses of smoke through mouth spill and smoke leakage from the filter after the smoker takes a puff.

Fishtail chimney
The fishtail chimney, developed by our scientists in the 1980s, is an apparatus for the collection of sidestream smoke on smoking engines in a standardised and reproducible way.  It is used in conjunction with a Cambridge Filter Pad for quantification of particulate sidestream smoke emissions, and with other trapping means for the quantification of volatile sidestream smoke species.

Aromatic materials added to tobacco to balance the natural tobacco taste and to give brands their characteristic flavour and aroma.

The curing process used for drying freshly harvested Virginia style tobaccos. It is carried out in tightly constructed barns using heated flues.

A specific sequence of DNA that codes for a protein (e.g. such as an enzyme).

Gene expression
The process whereby a gene is activated and translated into the protein it codes for.

The entire genetic make up of a person or organism.

Grade (tobacco grade)
A sub-division of a tobacco type. The grade breakdown of a tobacco type is defined by the position of the leaf on the stalk of the tobacco plant, the ripeness of the leaf, it’s colour, texture, and quality.

Harm is physical or psychological damage or injury to a person, either of a temporary or permanent nature.

Harm reduction
Lessening the harm associated with risk taking behaviour without complete abstinence from the behaviour.

Health Canada Intense Smoking Regime (HCI)
A machine smoking regime adopted by Health Canada in 1999 to measure and rank cigarette emissions under controlled conditions. The machine smoking conditions are a puff volume of 55 cm3 , a puff duration of 2s, a puff interval of 30s, and 100% blocking of the filter ventilation.  Often referred to as Canadian Intense.

Heat-not-burn (HnB)
Technology that generates a smokeable aerosol through heating rather than burning tobacco and/or other smoking materials.

Hoffmann analytes
A series of tobacco smoke constituents, most of which are of toxicological relevance, listed by Dietrich Hoffmann, a scientist from the American Health Foundation, and co-workers.

Human smoker yield
Human smoker yield is the amount of mainstream smoke constituent exiting the cigarette into the mouth when a human smokes a cigarette.  It can be measured by duplication of human smoking profiles and estimated using Filter Analysis techniques.  When estimated by filter analysis it can also be referred to as mouth level exposure, tar in use, or yield in use.

Human smoke retention
The extent to which inhaled smoke constituents are retained in the respiratory tract during smoking.

Ingredients added to tobacco blends to stabilize the moisture content of a tobacco product during storage. Glycerol and propylene glycol are the most commonly employed humectants.

“Intake” refers to the amount of smoke constituent inhaled by a smoker into the lungs. The units are mass of smoke constituent per puff or per cigarette.

Intense smoke regimes
Machine smoking regimes with larger puff volumes, and shorter puff intervals than the ISO machine smoking regime; some intense regimes also feature partial or total blocking of the filter ventilation (see ISO, Health Canada Intense, Massachusetts and WG9 Intense).

In vitro
Refers to biological studies conducted in a test tube or other artificial laboratory vessel; (as in ‘in vitro’, literally, ‘in glass’), e.g. in vitro toxicity testing.

In vivo
Refers to studies conducted in a living body, e.g. in vivo animal testing.

Institute of Medicine. The IOM is the health arm of the US National Academy of Sciences; it aims to help those in government and the private sector make informed health decisions by providing evidence upon which they can rely.

International Organization for Standardization . An international network of national bodies covering standardisation in all fields except electrical and electronic engineering standards.  ISO is the world’s largest non-governmental system for voluntary industrial and technical collaboration at the international level, and co-ordinates the exchange of information on international and national standards.

ISO smoking regime
An internationally accepted machine-based method for measuring and ranking cigarettes by smoke yield under controlled conditions (e.g. defined air-flow, ambient temperatures and humidities). ISO puffing conditions are a 35cm3 puff volume, a 2 second puff duration; and a puff frequency of once per minute; with smoking continuing to a fixed length from the tipping paper or filter (butt length).

ISO/TC 126
The ISO’s Technical Committee in charge of the standardization of terminology and test methods used for unmanufactured tobacco, tobacco products, materials used in the manufacture of tobacco products, and tobacco smoke.

ISO 17025
ISO/IEC 17025:2005 is a standard which specifies the general requirements for the competence to carry out tests and/or calibrations, including sampling. It covers testing and calibration performed using standard methods, non-standard methods, and laboratory-developed methods. Laboratory customers, regulatory authorities and accreditation bodies may also use it in confirming or recognizing the competence of laboratories.

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